PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) is an exponentially progressing synthesis of the defined target DNA sequences in vitro. PCR is an in-vitro technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, using DNA polymerase to synthesize two-stranded DNA from every single strand, and repeating the process.
Molecular markers are very important techniques for determining the genetic
variation and diversity with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility than simple
Molecular marker is a DNA or gene sequence within a recognized location on a chromosome which is used as an identification tool. In the pool of unknown DNA or in a whole chromosome, these molecular markers helps in identification of particular sequence of DNA at particular location.
Applications of Molecular Marker
- It plays a crucial role in gene mapping by identifying the position of linked genes in the chromosome which inherited together.
- It also detects any alteration in a sequence of DNA or any genetic oddity. It ascertains genes involved in genetic disorders.
- It is used to determine different characters in a DNA sequence which is used to distinguish between individuals, populations or species.
- Different types of genetic polymorphism can be used as Genetic markers. On the basis of polymorphisms detected in the genetic makeup of individuals that may vary in the length of a DNA sequence or in the identity of nucleotides located at specific position in chromosome.