When trees and crops are grown together on the same piece of land there will be interactions between the two components. This interaction is called tree-crop interaction and it may be either positive or negative.
various interactions like light, nutrition for growth and survival take place between the tree and crop which are referred to as the tree/crop interaction. These interactions take place through the medium of soil and climate. The interaction is in two ways; above-the-ground interaction for light and below-ground interaction for nutrients.
The interaction depends on the surface area covered, the root system of the species, and the type of trees and agricultural crops involved in a specific time and space.
- The tree grows better, agricultural crop grows worse.
- The tree grows worse, and agricultural crop relatively unaffected
- Both trees and agricultural crops do better than expected.
- Both trees and crops are adversely affected to some degree.
Tree Crop Interaction Effects
- Positive Interaction include fertility management,nitrogen fixation,biomass contribution,water conservation,soil conservation,etc.
- Negative Interaction may be competiton for light,nutrient,water,space,shade,etc.
The term symbiosis was derived from the greek word sym means ‘with’ and biosis means ‘living’.The term was first used by German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary, who defined it as “the living together of unlike organisms”.
Symbiosis is a close ecological relationship between the individuals of two(or more) different species. Sometimes a symbiotic relationship benefits both species,sometimes one species benefited at the expense of the other, and in other cases neither species benefits.
Symbiotic microorganisms like Rhizobium and Frankia have potential roles in nitrogen fixation, plant growth regulation, and phosphate solubilization, and are concerned with nutrient transformations of decaying plant material. The symbiosis between Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium and legumes are more effective agronomic practice for ensuring a adequate supply of Nitrogen.
The Greek word allelo means “mutual” and pathic means “harm or suffering” and was first used in 1937 by the Austrian professor Hans Molisch.
Allelopathy is defined as direct or indirect interaction, whereby allelochemicals released by one organism influence the physiological processes of other neighboring organisms.
New species combinations, rapid successional changes, and introduced exotic species can generate a large allelopathic effect.
Allelopathic Interference comes from following ways;
- Root Exudation
- Residue decomposition